Embedded protostellar disks around (sub-)solar stars. II. Disk masses, sizes, densities, temperatures, and the planet formation perspective

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dc.creator Vorobyov, Eduard I.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-04-30T15:22:53Z
dc.date.available 2018-04-30T15:22:53Z
dc.date.issued 2011-03-10
dc.identifier.issn 0004-637X
dc.identifier.uri http://library2.smu.ca/handle/01/27491
dc.description Publisher's Version/PDF
dc.description.abstract We present basic properties of protostellar disks in the embedded phase of star formation (EPSF), which is difficult to probe observationally using available observational facilities. We use numerical hydrodynamics simulations of cloud core collapse and focus on disks formed around stars in the 0.03&ndash;1.0 M<sub>☉</sub> mass range. Our obtained disk masses scale near-linearly with the stellar mass. The mean and median disk masses in the Class 0 and I phases (M<sup>mean</sup> <sub>d,C0</sub> = 0.12 M<sub>☉</sub>, M<sup>mdn</sup> <sub>d,C0</sub> = 0.09 M<sub>☉</sub> and M<sup>mean</sup> <sub>d,CI</sub> = 0.18 M<sub>☉</sub>, M<sup>mdn</sup> <sub>d,CI</sub> = 0.15 M<sub>☉</sub>, respectively) are greater than those inferred from observations by (at least) a factor of 2&ndash;3. We demonstrate that this disagreement may (in part) be caused by the optically thick inner regions of protostellar disks, which do not contribute to millimeter dust flux. We find that disk masses and surface densities start to systematically exceed that of the minimum mass solar nebular for objects with stellar mass as low as M<sub>&lowast;</sub> = 0.05&ndash;0.1 M<sub>☉</sub>. Concurrently, disk radii start to grow beyond 100 AU, making gravitational fragmentation in the disk outer regions possible. Large disk masses, surface densities, and sizes suggest that giant planets may start forming as early as in the EPSF, either by means of core accretion (inner disk regions) or direct gravitational instability (outer disk regions), thus breaking a longstanding stereotype that the planet formation process begins in the Class II phase. en_CA
dc.language.iso en en_CA
dc.publisher IOP Publishing Limited en_CA
dc.relation.uri https://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/729/2/146
dc.rights Article is made available in accordance with the publisher’s policy and is subject to copyright law. Please refer to the publisher’s site. Any re-use of this article is to be in accordance with the publisher’s copyright policy. This posting is in no way granting any permission for re-use to the reader/user.
dc.subject.lcsh Circumstellar matter
dc.subject.lcsh Interstellar matter
dc.subject.lcsh Hydrodynamics
dc.subject.lcsh Protoplanetary disks
dc.subject.lcsh Stars -- Formation
dc.title Embedded protostellar disks around (sub-)solar stars. II. Disk masses, sizes, densities, temperatures, and the planet formation perspective en_CA
dc.type Text en_CA
dcterms.bibliographicCitation Astrophysical Journal 729(2), 146. (2011) en_CA


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Article is made available in accordance with the publisher’s policy and is subject to copyright law. Please refer to the publisher’s site. Any re-use of this article is to be in accordance with the publisher’s copyright policy. This posting is in no way granting any permission for re-use to the reader/user.
 
Published Version: https://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/729/2/146
 
 

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