Pre-catalyst resting states: a kinetic, thermodynamic and quantum mechanical analyses of [PdCl[subscript 2](2-oxazoline)[subscript 2]] complexes

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dc.creator Gossage, Robert A.
dc.creator Jenkins, Hilary A.
dc.creator Jones, Nathan D.
dc.creator Jones, Roderick C.
dc.creator Yates, Brian F.
dc.date.accessioned 2015-03-05T16:20:21Z
dc.date.available 2015-03-05T16:20:21Z
dc.date.issued 2008
dc.identifier.issn 1477-9226
dc.identifier.uri http://library2.smu.ca/xmlui/handle/01/25972
dc.description Publisher's version/PDF en_CA
dc.description.abstract The treatment of cold (∼3 [degrees]C) methanolic solutions of Li[subscript 2]PdCl[subscript 4] with two equivalents of 2-phenyl-2-oxazoline (Phox) results in the isolation of [PdCl[subscript 2](Phox)[subscript 2]] (3). This complex undergoes remarkably slow isomerisation (CHCl[subscript 3]-d) at room temperature to a corresponding thermodynamic form. In addition to a theoretical treatment (DFT), the isomerisation behaviour has been analysed both kinetically and thermodynamically. These investigations lead to the conclusion that the initially formed (i.e. kinetic) isomer of 3 is the cis-form which undergoes conversion to the corresponding thermodynamic trans-form via a dissociative (D) mechanism involving loss of a Phox ligand. The activation parameters [delta]S[superscript double +] and [delta]H[superscript double +] are found to be +304 ([plus or minus]3) J K[superscript −1] mol[superscript −1] and +176 ([plus or minus]1) kJ mol[superscript −1], respectively and indicate a high barrier to Pd-N bond cleavage under these conditions. The thermodynamic parameters show the expected endothermic nature of this process (+140 [plus or minus] 17 kJ mol[superscript −1]) and a slight positive overall entropy ([delta]S[superscript degree symbol] = +17 [plus or minus] 2 J K[superscript −1] mol[superscript −1]); this latter parameter is presumably due to the formation of the lower dipole moment trans-product when compared to the cis-isomer. Calculated (DFT) values of [delta]G[superscript double +] and [delta]H[superscript double +] are in excellent agreement to those found experimentally. Further theoretical investigation suggests that two 14-electron three-coordinate T-shaped transition states (i.e., [PdCl[subscript 2](Phox)][superscript double +]) are involved; the form pre-disposed to yield the thermodynamic trans-product following re-attachment of the released oxazoline is found to be energetically favoured. The analogous alkyloxazoline system [PdCl[subscript 2](Meox)[subscript 2]] (4: Meox = 2-methyl-2-oxazoline) has likewise been investigated. This material gives no indication of cis–trans isomerisation behaviour in solution (NMR) and is shown to exist (X-ray) in the trans-form in the solid-state (as do previously reported crystalline samples of 3). A DFT study of 4 reveals similar values of [delta]S[superscript double +] and [delta]H[superscript double +] if a D type mechanism were operating to rapidly convert cis- to trans-4. However, a significantly higher thermodynamic stability of the trans-isomer relative to the cis-form is revealed versus similar calculations of the Phox derivative 3. This suggests the possibility that (i) reactions of Meox with Li[subscript 2]PdCl[subscript 4] may lead directly to the trans-form of [PdCl[subscript 2](Meox)[subscript 2]] or alternatively (ii) that alkyloxazoline complexes such as 4 may have a different, and presumably much more rapid, mechanism for isomerisation. The results are placed into the context that isomerisation behaviour, or lack thereof, could play a key preliminary role in later substrate modification. This is due to the fact that [PdX[subscript 2](oxazoline)[subscript 2]] compounds are well-known (pre-)catalysts for C-C bond forming chemistry. en_CA
dc.language.iso en en_CA
dc.publisher Royal Society of Chemistry en_CA
dc.subject.lcsh Thermodynamics
dc.subject.lcsh Methanol
dc.subject.lcsh Isolating mechanisms
dc.subject.lcsh Isomerization
dc.title Pre-catalyst resting states: a kinetic, thermodynamic and quantum mechanical analyses of [PdCl[subscript 2](2-oxazoline)[subscript 2]] complexes en_CA
dc.type Text en_CA
dcterms.bibliographicCitation Dalton Transactions 2008(23), 3115-3122. (2008) en_CA


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